Györ ~ 1556
A.D. the Romans built
Arrabona on the site of a Neolithic settlement, and a Celtic merchant
town. Visigoths, Huns, Avars, Franks, and Moravians occupied the site
over the centuries. Towards the end of the ninth century the Magyars
drove out the Moravians. In 1001 King Stephen made Györ an episcopal
See and a county seat. The Tartars burned it in 1241, and the
Hungarians then fortified the site with the strongest defenses yet
The Turks invaded
in 1526 but Györ did not fall. Later, under the rule of Emperor
Ferdinand of Austria, the Turks took the fortress. After the Turks
withdrew the fortress was rebuilt in accordance with the most advanced
techniques of military engineering.
The new fortress
was designed by Pietro Ferabosco. Construction began in about 1554.
The plan on the stamp is a small part of Nicolo Aginelli’s
Javerinum olim anno MDLXVI... accuratissime delineatum, redrawn by
Gerog Hoefnagel for Georg Braun’s Urbium praecipuarum mundi
The position of the
wall is believed to lie on the perimeter of the Roman military camp.
The bishop’s palace, the Püspökvár, built in the 13th century was
built into the walls. The fortress withstood the Turks in 1594, though
it was entered by treachery. The Hungarians regained it four years
later, and it was never captured by the Turks again.