Mahmud al-Kashgari

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     Mahmud Kashgari ibn Husayn ibn Muhammad was born in Kashi, China (short for Kashgar). His father, Husayn was the mayor of Barsgan, his mother, Bubi Rabiya Basri, was an intelligent woman. He studied Turkic dialects and wrote about them in Divanü Lügat-it-Türk in 1072. It was intended for use by the Caliphs of Baghdad, the new, Arabic allies of the Turks. He included the first known Turkish map in his book.
     The map is a map of the world, centered on the Turkish-speaking areas of Central Asia, the area on the border between Kyrghizstan and Xinjang province in China. The map is preserved in the Millet Genel Kütüphanesi (the General National Library), Istanbul.

SCN 1904

     The colors are blue for rivers, green for seas, light yellow for deserts, red for mountains, and yellow for cities, countries, lands and peoples. The map is oriented with East at the top. The scale  is reduced as one gets nearer the edge of the map. A key to some of the places on the maps follows below. The key-map has been oriented with North at the top

A Key to some of the locations in the map

1. Bulgaria  2. Caspian Sea  3. Rus  4. Alexandria  5. Egypt  6. Tashkent  7. Japan (surrounded by water-the green semicircle  8. China-with water to the west  9. Balasaghun-the center of the world  10. Kashgar-Mahmud's birthplace  11. Samarkand  12. Iraq  13. Azerbaijan  14. Yemen  (15-18 Africa)  15. East Somalia  16. East Sahara  17. Ethiopia  18. North Somalia  (19-22 Indian subcontinent) 19. Indus  20. Hindustan  21. Ceylon and Adam's footprint  22. Kashmir  23. God and Magog  24. the world-encircling sea.
     These and other locations and given in Albert Herrmann, "Die älteste türkische Weltkarte (1076 n. Chr.)," Imago Mundi I(1935)21-28.
     The red mark on the south side of the map (21) identifies the location of the "footprint of Adam," Jebel Serandib, Adam's Peak, on the island of Ceylon, to which Adam was exiled after he was exiled from Paradise. Gog and Magog (23) are a nation and its ruler which represent an apocalyptic evil power, walled off from the world by a range of mountains.
     A more complete English key is available at: . Copy the url and paste it into your browser.