Centenary of "Olho de Cabra" ~ 1861-1961
In 1961 Brazil issued two
stamps to commemorate the 100th anniversary of "Olho de Cabra," the
"eye of the goat" stamps issued in 1861. Two Brazilian stamps from
1861 are featured on those issued in 1961, the 380 and 430 reis
values. These are the "olhos de cabra," because the design is supposed
to look like a goat's eye."
In addition to the "goat's eyes" each of the stamps
also features a map, the low value a map of France and the English
Channel, the high value, a map of the Netherlands. Mark Honig has
called my attention to a note in the CartoPhilatelist for
September-October 1961, p. 46, which indicates that the maps represent
the destinations served by the rates commanded by the stamps, France
and the Netherlands respectively.
Pan-American Union ~ 1890-1940
The stamp was issued in 1940 to mark the 50th
anniversary of the Pan-American Union. In addition to the map profiles
of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and President Getúlio Dornelles
Vargas of Brazil. Vargas was the dictator of Brazil from 1930 to 1954.
Slavery in Brazil
The discovery of the Western
Hemisphere created a need for cheap labor to exploit the resources
discovered there which brought about a great expansion of slavery in
the 1500's. While a lot of attention has been paid to the institution
of African slavery in the North, the country with the largest and
longest experience with slavery was not the United States but Brazil.
It was not until 1851 that the importation of slaves was prohibited
and not until 1888 that slavery was abolished. Today Brazil has the
largest black population outside Africa.
The stamp shows a portion of a map of Africa showing
the Gulf of Benin, a view of a slave ship from above, and outline maps
of Africa and South America with the slave trade routes between them.